The Pomeranian is the smallest member of the Spitz group. The first entered England in about 1761 but were much larger than the Pomeranians we see today and most were white. The breed was a great favourite with Queen Victoria who kept them throughout her reign. In fact, in 1888, Queen Victoria travelled to Italy and obtained a red sable dog named Marco which she brought back to England and exhibited him with much success. Soon after, Victoria travel back to Italy and arrived back accompanied by three other Pomeranians. However, special mention must go to Mrs. Gladys Dyke (Kennel Hadleigh) for her sheer dedication to the breed from producing her first champion in 1948 until she died in 1997. She was a truly outstanding breeder of many, many, champions of the most beautiful and endearing type. Gladys was an expert in handling, grooming and it showed in the ring. There will never be another Gladys Dyke – she will always be remembered as the very best breeder of Pomeranians of all time.
The Pomeranian is a small compact, short-coupled, little dog full of spirit and character. His head is foxy in outline with small erect ears. His body is short with well-round ribs. The tail is one of the characteristics of the breed in that it is turned over the back and carried flat and straight; profusely covered with long, harsh, spreading hair. He is doubled-coated, a short fluffy undercoat, and his outer-coat is long, perfectly straight, and covering the whole body, with an abundant round the neck. His coat colour can be of any whole colour without any white marking.
IMPORTANT. A Pomeranian with exaggerated features is the result of bad breeding. Credit; The Breed Club Connection.
The life expectancy of a Pomeranian is 12 to 16 years. A well-bred dog on a good diet with appropriate exercise will have few health problems; and, if kept trim and fit, a Pomeranian is a sturdy dog. The breed does have similar health issues to many dog breeds, although some issues such as hip dysplasia are uncommon because of the Pomeranian’s lightweight build. Some health issues can develop as a result of irresponsible breeding, lack of attention to grooming and teeth-, ear-, and eye-cleaning. With routine care, these problems can be avoided. They are prone to early tooth loss, and dry food is recommended. Pomeranians are one of the breeds with the smallest average litter size, with various source giving numbers of between 1.9 and 2.7 puppies per litter.
Another common disorder in male Pomeranians is cryptorchidism. This is when either one or both of the testicles do not descend into the scrotum. It is treated through surgical removal of the retained testicle.
DENTAL PROBLEMS; Poms are prone to teeth and gum problems and early tooth loss. Watch for dental problems and take your Pom to the vet for regular dental exams.
PATELLAR LUXATION; This is a very common problem for Poms. The patella is the kneecap. Luxation means dislocation of an anatomical part (as a bone at a joint). Patellar luxation is when the knee-joint (often of a hind leg) slides in and out-of-place, causing pain. This can be crippling, but many dogs lead relatively normal lives with this condition.
EYE PROBLEMS; Pomeranians are prone to a variety of eye problems, including cataracts, dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) (dryness of the cornea and the conjunctiva), and tear duct problems. These problems can appear in young adult dogs and may lead to blindness if untreated. Contact your vet if you notice any redness, scarring, or excessive tearing.
COLLAPSED TRACHEA; This is a condition in which the trachea, which carries air to the lungs, tends to collapse easily. The most common sign of a collapsed trachea is a chronic, dry, harsh cough that many describe as being similar to a “goose honk.” Since it can be caused by pulling too hard against a collar while walking, you should train your Pom to walk nicely beside you instead of pulling at the leash, or use a harness instead of a collar. Collapsed trachea can be treated medically or surgically.
HIP DYSPLASIA; Hip dysplasia occurs occasionally in Pomeranians. Many factors, including genetics, environment and diet, are thought to contribute to this deformity of the hip-joint. Affected Pomeranians usually are able to lead normal, healthy lives, unlike some of the large and giant breeds, who need surgery to get around easily.