The Border Collie is actually a descendant from landrace collies, although now extinct, they were found throughout all parts of England. All pure-bred Border Collies
seen today are descendants of “Old Hemp”. He was a tricolour born in 1893 and used at stud by many shepherds because of his quiet working style in which sheep
readily responded to. He died in 1902 at a ripe old age of about 19 years. In 1915, a Mr. James Reid, who was the Secretary of the “International Sheep Dog Society”
was the first to use the term “Border Collie” in order to distinguish dogs registered with the “International Sheep Dog Society” to those from the collie mix, including,
Rough Collie and Smooth Collie, from the Kennel Club’s “collie”, all coming from the very same working dogs but which had each developed their own standard
appearance after the introduction of the show ring in 1860 with the mixture of other collies.
The Border Collie is a medium-sized dog; the show type have a moderately long coat with feathering behind the front and back legs and underside of his tail. His double
coat is moderately thick with the outer coat a little harsh to the touch whilst his undercoat is quite soft and thick. The popular colours are tricolour, black and white, sable
and white and blue merle. The colour of their eyes can vary from dark brown to blue in the blue merles. The blue merles may also have odd eyes, one being blue with the
other dark brown. Ears are variable, both erect, semi-erect or fully dropped. The Border Collie has a keen, intelligent expression.
Border Collies are generally healthy, but like all breeds, they’re prone to certain health conditions. Not all Border Collies will get any or all of these diseases, but it’s
important to be aware of them if you’re considering this breed.
In Border Collies, you should expect to see health clearances from the Orthopedic Specialist for hip dysplasia (with a score of fair or better) and elbow dysplasia.
Epilepsy: This is a neurological condition that’s often, but not always, inherited. Epilepsy can cause mild or severe seizures that may show themselves as unusual behavior
(such as running frantically as if being chased, staggering, or hiding) or even by falling down, limbs rigid, and losing consciousness. Seizures are frightening to watch, but
the long-term prognosis for dogs with idiopathic epilepsy is generally very good. It’s important to take your dog to the vet for proper diagnosis (especially since seizures
can have other causes) and treatment.
Collie Eye Anomaly: This is an inherited condition that causes changes and abnormalities in the eye, which can sometimes lead to blindness. These changes can include
choroidal hypoplasia (an abnormal development of the choroids), coloboma (a defect in the optic disc), staphyloma (a thinning of the sclera), and retinal detachment.
Collie eye anomaly usually occurs by the time the dog is two years old. There is no treatment for the condition.
Osteochondrosis Dissecans (OCD): This orthopedic condition, caused by improper growth of cartilage in the joints, usually occurs in the elbows, but it has been seen in
the shoulders as well. It causes a painful stiffening of the joint, to the point that the dog is unable to bend his elbow. It can be detected in dogs as early as four to nine
months of age. Overfeeding of “growth formula” puppy foods or high-protein foods may contribute to its development.
Hip Dysplasia: This is an inherited condition in which the thighbone doesn’t fit snugly into the hip-joint. Some dogs show pain and lameness on one or both rear legs, but
others don’t display outward signs of discomfort. (X-ray screening is the most certain way to diagnose the problem.) Either way, arthritis can develop as the dog ages.
Dogs with hip dysplasia should not be bred — so if you’re buying a puppy, ask the breeder for proof that the parents have been tested for hip dysplasia and are free of
Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA): This is a family of eye diseases that involves the gradual deterioration of the retina. Early in the disease, affected dogs become
night-blind; they lose sight during the day as the disease progresses. Many affected dogs adapt well to their limited or lost vision, as long as their surroundings remain the